From the perspective of IFOAM – Organics International, seeds resulting from plant breeding with techniques of cell fusion are GMOs. Biotechnology is used to fuse the contents of cells from different organisms, most often those that would not be able to breed under natural conditions, to create new hybrids. The technology intervenes at cellular level rather than directly modifying genes. However, its disruption of the natural integrity of cells resulting in hybrids that could not be obtained by natural mating and reproduction qualify it as genetic engineering. See the full article at TOS issue 174.